Referencing & Footnoting

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Academic institutions in the UK and America often utilise popular referencing systems which include:

  • Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA),
  • The Harvard System (often called the ‘Author Date System’),
  • Chicago System
  • Modern Language Association of America (MLA)
  • American Psychological Association (APA)

University departments often specify which system you should use for your assignments. Systems like the Harvard system, are becoming more popular than systems in which full references to sources are set out in notes at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the piece of work (endnotes).

Have a look at journals in the library to see which systems are used in academic publications for your particular subject?

Whichever system you choose, BE CONSISTENT: you must maintain exactly the same style of citation throughout each piece of work, and the style used in the bibliography should mirror that said referencing system employed in the references or notes.



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